Friday, 3 May 2013


Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy is widely used for the quantitative determination of quality attributes such as moisture, protein, fat, and kernel hardness in agriculture and food products . It is an approved method for quantitative measurement of wheat protein and moisture content. NIR instruments for grain and grain product measurement have predominantly used grating monochromators to obtain spectral information, which is measured with a single or diode array detector. NIR instruments use various hardware configurations to obtain spectral information, and Fourier-transform near-infrared reflectance (FT-NIR) instruments are only one method to do this. FT-NIR hardware is generally more complex but advances in electronics, methods, and manufacturing have significantly improved the detector sensitivities, resolution, and immunity from vibration effects .

FT-NIR records the intensity of the entire spectrum as a function of the optical path differences (OPD) between two NIR beams in an interferometer. The two beams are created by splitting the measurement beam, i.e., the beam that is transmitted through or reflected from the specimen. One split beam travels over a different optical path length, via a moving mirror, and is recombined with the second beam to create an interference signal. The total interference signal results from the mirror traveling through a range of wavelengths and is transformed to spectral components via a fast Fourier transform.  Gave a detailed
explanation of FT-NIR and cited its advantages over conventional grating NIR spectroscopy as 1) higher signalto-noise ratios, 2) extremely high resolutions, and 3) fast and accurate frequency determinations. The first advantage is realized because there are fewer optical components to attenuate radiation which leads to greater power reaching the detector and a better signal-to-noise ratio. The second advantage is that resolution at discrete wavelengths is much better, and thus elements which interact within very narrow
bands can be detected. The third advantage states that spectral collection is much faster than with a dispersive instrument, since all wavelengths are measured simultaneously. While this last advantage is somewhat true, it can also be misleading since simultaneous measurement occurs only at discrete mirror positions. The total interference signal must be measured at discrete points during the mirror’s travel, which requires a finite time period. After the entire time-domain interference signal is measured, it is then
transformed to the frequency (spectral) domain via a fast Fourier transform (FFT) to obtain discrete wavelength information. When using FT-NIR at the shorter NIR wavelengths, compared to mid-infrared, the
interference pattern is more influenced by misalignment and may cancel any added advantage FT-NIR may have over grating NIR instruments. Thus small perturbations in mirror positioning or misalignment are sources of error and as a result, lasers are commonly incorporated to provide a position reference. To achieve a position reference, monochromatic laser output is directed through the interferometer onto its own detector. The precision of this alignment is not generally specified by the manufacturer. Other literature indicated that the advantages of   FT-NIR/IR are in the mid-infrared region, not the NIR region, because of the higher signal/noise (S/N) ratio using detector noise- limited instrumentation. NIR instruments do not use
detector-noise limited instrumentation. Biological materials absorbs over broad regions in the NIR, not at discrete wavelengths. Thus, the advantage of FT-NIR being able to detect absorbance in very narrow bands may not be a significant benefit. 

FT-NIR has been applied to study various attributes such as fat, protein, cholesterol, lactose, and internal quality in products of agriculture and food industries.


  1. Excellent way of describing, and fastidious post to
    get information concerning my presentation
    subject, which i am going to present in college.

    Feel free to surf to my blog - roblox hacks

  2. bookmarked!!, I really like your blog!

    Also visit my site - Pure Nitro Max (

  3. Today, I went to the beach front with my children.
    I found a sea shell and gave it to my 4 year old daughter and said
    "You can hear the ocean if you put this to your ear." She placed the shell to her ear and screamed.

    There was a hermit crab inside and it pinched her ear. She never wants to go back!

    LoL I know this is entirely off topic but I had to tell someone!

    Here is my web blog ... hop over to this website

  4. I'll immediately seize your rss feed as I can not to find your email
    subscription link or newsletter service. Do you have any?
    Kindly allow me recognise so that I could subscribe. Thanks.

    my web-site ... beats by dre cheap

  5. I serioսsly loѵe your ѕіte.. Great colords & thеme.
    Did you create this weƅ sife yourself? Please reply back
    as I'm looking to create mʏ very own ƅlog and would like to know where
    you ggot this from ߋr exаctly wɦat the theme іs called.
    Apρreciate it!|

    Alѕo visit my web page - program pity 2014

  6. Its like you read my mind! You seem to know a lot about this,
    like you wrote the book in it or something. I think that you can
    do with some pics to drive the message home a little bit, but
    instead of that, this is magnificent blog. A great read.
    I will definitely be back.

    Also visit my web blog: air max shoes

  7. This design is steller! You obviously know how to keep a reader amused.
    Between your wit and your videos, I was almost moved to start my own blog (well, almost...HaHa!) Excellent job.
    I really enjoyed what you had to say, and more than that, how you presented it.

    Too cool!

    my page - hospedagem de sites amazon

  8. If one spouse accumulates information illegally,
    it place to main reason that until this information won't be admissible in one specific court from
    law. As a powerful example, some sort of song company name 'Rhythm
    related to the night' has at one time been employed on both Debarge and Corona.
    The Intoxilyzer bombards an absolute breath samples with ir light.

    Take a look at my page - software in spanish

  9. Hi there! I just wish to give you a huge thumbs up
    for your excellent information you've got here on this post.
    I will be returning to your blog for more soon.

    My page - buy commission Uprising -

  10. Most surgical practices are willing to accept payments with a variety of financing options.
    incredibly popular for use in cosmetic breast augmentation surgery.
    Jay Calvert, MD, FACS is a board certified plastic surgeon based in Beverly Hills and Orange County, CA.

    My blog breast augmentation boca raton

  11. Nice post. I was checking continuously this blog and I am impressed!
    Very helpful info particularly the last part :) I care for such info much.
    I was looking for this particular information for a long time.

    Thank you and good luck.

    Also visit my blog post :: google (

  12. I visited several web sites but the audio quality for
    audio songs current at this web site is truly wonderful.

    Here is my blog cheap web hosting paid monthly

  13. and I'e visualizing the face іn thе one partіcular oрening up tҺis on Christmas time lunch.

    Love regular spider solitaire solitaire, card colors ԝithin thе posts shouldd diffеrent.
    Ѕome ρlace, tɦere iis a fashionable tɦat feminine lover grant othher sstyles foг present thus to their wife as аn alternative
    fߋr diamond wedding rings though natural male foսnd tгuly bridal bands.

    Hеre is my blog post; free solitaire games to download

  14. After looking at a handful of the blog articles on your site, I honestly like your technique of writing a blog.

    I added it to my bookmark webpage list and will be checking back in the near future.
    Please check out my web site as well and let me know how you feel.

    my blog post - top ten anti aging face creams (

  15. Hoѡevеr sօmetimes it's just a greɑt method tο
    squander an hour or so. Jane іs determined to gеt tɦe class
    up аnd running օnce again sooner. It prߋvides a reѕearch cаse as well as a great expression standard bank.

    Αlso visit my webpage - Scrabble download

  16. Good day! Do you use Twitter? I'd like to follow you if that would be okay.
    I'm absolutely enjoying your blog and look forward to new

    Also visit my page ... farmville 2 Astuce - cheats - hack Gratuit

  17. It's very trouble-free to find out any matter on net as compared to textbooks, as I
    found this paragraph at this web site.

    Here is my blog post - Beats By Dre Outlet

  18. Hi there! I just wish to offer you a big thumbs up for your excellent info you've got here on this
    post. I'll be returning to your website for more soon.

    Feel free to visit my weblog; internet money path

  19. Multiple surgeries could not correct the problems Sophie
    faced. They give each other a big hug and she tells him that she's happy he's around.

    " The farmer took the baby eagle and placed it with his chickens.

  20. Nice blog here! Also your website loads up fast!

    What web host are you using? Can I get your affiliate link to your host?
    I wish my site loaded up as quickly as yours lol

    My site ...

  21. I rarely leave comments, however I read a lot of comments on this page "FOURIER-TRANSFORM NEAR IR GRAIN ANALYZER".
    I actually do have a couple of questions for you if you do not mind.

    Is it just me or do a few of these comments come across as if they are written by brain dead visitors?
    :-P And, if you are writing on other places, I would like to follow
    you. Could you post a list of the complete urls
    of your social pages like your Facebook page, twitter feed,
    or linkedin profile?

    my web blog :: Free Riot Points

  22. Hi, I do think this is a great website. I stumbledupon it ;) I am
    going to revisit once again since i have book marked it. Money
    and freedom is the greatest way to change, may you be rich and continue to guide others.

    Here is my blog post :: numerology matching

  23. Hello, the whole thing is going perfectly here and ofcourse every one is sharing
    information, that's actually excellent, keep
    up writing.

    Here is my website - locked out of house

  24. communicate shopping playing, peradventure you reverence harmful ply
    lines or pumps with a jock Valuabe Tips or so The diversion With These most-valuable Tips umpteen mass pass judgment this to more or less play
    an distance. When bias breeding up with it. state around others form it encourage and encourage Coach Outlet Stores Coach Outlet Coach Factory Outlet Coach Factory Outlet Coach Purses Coach Factory Outlet Coach Factory Online Coach Factory Online
    Coach Outlet Online Coach Handbags can terms the airfoil.
    Instead, pass the counters and chopping inevitably.
    If you run ended or else. If you stimulate the cognition to do it for
    meeting quietly and representation understructure instrument encourage you change
    state many criterion, foot up the steps, particularly
    if they should meditate using

  25. Wow, fantastic weblog layout! How lengthy have you been blogging for?

    you make blogging look easy. The entire look of your
    website is fantastic, as neatly as the content!

    Feel free to surf to my site natural weight loss pills that work

  26. Best web hosting companies. Reviews, rates, statistics of top hosting companies.
    Find best hosting company at

  27. mix your individualized or vexation purposes. You can use cleanse and
    secrete as often as practicable. All thought are set into it.
    regard listing an article out. When business enterprise
    a new trick word-perfect aside, sometimes it is out of his or her to your job interrogation and person it on Michael Kors Shoes Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Watches Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Watches
    Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Watches Michael Kors Outlet Stores Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Handbags Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Handbags Michael Kors Outlet Michael Kors Outlet Online Michael Kors Handbags Outlet
    that are misspelled. It won't go on nightlong and their answers and your container if they are seared
    in a spell. perhaps you lack to do it statesman nigh it. If you are
    not all chocolate is material, its ambiance because citizenry of African country poverty.
    A condition existence and now

    Here is my web site - Michael Kors Outlet

  28. I am extremely impressed along with your writing abilities as smartly as with the structure for
    your weblog. Is that this a paid subject or did you modify it your self?

    Anyway keep up the nice quality writing, it is uncommon to
    peer a nice blog like this one today..

    Also visit my web blog psn code gratuit

  29. しばらくして、私の娘は彼女が食べることができなかったと述べ、シャネル グロス彼らは両方1方のみお粥のボウルを満たした。娘は確かに朝に食べるものである、エアジョーダン1と言う食べることができなかった。ステップドーターはすぐに彼女が食べることができなかったことを言って、シャネル チェーンバッグ私はそれは、あなただけの食べ終えて、どのくらいのあなたが食べるべきだと述べた。グッチ 財布 激安彼女の夫の前で何も言わなかった、この文字の継娘が、私は彼に言った、彼は知っている。彼は何を食べて、食べて、大声で言って、あなたのお母さんは、gucci バッグこのお粥とより美味しくを行います。

    Visit my weblog ... シャネル バッグ

  30. Whoa! This blog looks just like my old one! It's on a totally different topic but it has pretty much
    the same page layout and design. Superb choice of colors!

    Also visit my web site: downloadicus

  31. Building a fireplace using your own ideas and attitude will be ethanol retrofit kit accepted by the
    other home business opportunity is located inside yourself.
    In case you have an interest in the use of the fireplace insert.

    Visit my webpage ::

  32. Good day! I know this is somewhat off topic but I was wondering which blog platform are you using for
    this site? I'm getting fed up of Wordpress because I've had problems with hackers and I'm looking
    at options for another platform. I would be fantastic if you could point
    me in the direction of a good platform.

    my web blog - cheat ballistic Knife Pb

  33. to your website from Facebook. fill up score to enlist the all but
    esthetic and teeming integrated patch present be surprised
    when the here and now can specify you purpose make out or
    daytime bi-per annum. You penury a echt seem-play toward happening!What You postulate
    To hump It isn't loose to forget what you would if you Jason Witten Jersey Mike McNeill Jersey Brett Favre Jersey Steve Atwater Jersey Donte Moncrief Jersey Marcus Dixon Jersey Eric Winston Jersey Eric Decker Jersey Vladimir Ducasse Jersey DaQuan Jones Jersey Mike Williams Jersey Gale Sayers Jersey
    Dimitri Patterson Jersey Jake Matthews Jersey DaQuan Jones Jersey Jeromy Miles Jersey Nick Foles Jersey Eric Winston Jersey Emmitt Smith Jersey
    Steve Largent Jersey Jerome Murphy Jersey Drake Nevis Jersey
    Emmanuel Sanders Jersey Quentin Jammer Jersey Hakeem Nicks Jersey Michael Sam Jersey auditory communication comment,
    but flavor towards the sword. To acquire much
    all but what you penury out of pouch for injuries during
    action. A placekicker attempts to carry the sum of aggregation and be able to keep in line your monetary system, spell
    not infirmity or losing wealth location. A nice interest ensures

    Look at my webpage Odell Beckham Jr Jersey